Tools to measure presence

Because presence occurs in many contexts and has been defined in a variety of ways, researchers have developed a diverse set of techniques to measure presence. A small number of researchers have reviewed and summarized the ‘state-of-the-art’ of presence measures, and two of these projects are available here, along with information about others.

Resources here:

ISPR Statement and Compendium of Presence Measures (2000)

OmniPres Guide and Compendium for Presence Measurement (2005)

Other useful resources:

Nunez, D. (2007). A Capacity Limited, Cognitive Constructionist Model of Virtual Presence. Dissertation, Department of Computer Science, University of Cape Town. Available: [Chapter 2: Concepts and Measures of Presence provides a detailed review of questionnaires.]

Youngblut, C. (2003). Experience of presence in virtual environments. Institute for Defense Analyses Document D-2960. Available: [A detailed review of presence measurement.]

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